Down syndrome can be detected before birth to a large extent. Because it is a chromosomal disorder, the only way to confirm that a baby has or has not Down Syndrome is to test the baby’s cells for its chromosomes.
However, since this kind of direct testing is costly and adds a very slightly increased risk of miscarriage, it is not offered to every pregnant mother. The direct test is offered usually when the indirect test says there is a higher than average risk (referred to as screen positive)

The indirect testing is called screening test. We offer two screening tests and these are considered as standard. You have to remember that screening tests cannot say whether or not a baby has Down Syndrome. It can only say whether there is a high or a low chance of the baby having Down Syndrome.
For all women where the indirect test (or screening test) says high-risk for Down syndrome, they have to undergo further testing to make sure if the baby has Down Syndrome or not. Depending on various factors, we will guide you into one of four options when there is high risk : cell-free fetal DNA test, chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, or fetal blood sampling. You can also, after clearly understanding the test result, deny any further testing. We will counsel you about the pros and cons of all these options.

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